Pesquisa avalia associação de intervenções para tratar a fibromialgia

Um projeto de pesquisa desenvolvido na UFSCar está avaliando os efeitos da educação terapêutica da dor associada à hidroterapia sobre a dor, depressão, ansiedade, qualidade de vida e de sono de mulheres que sofrem de fibromialgia. Para desenvolver o estudo, estão sendo convidadas mulheres que têm o problema diagnosticado para que participem de avaliações e tratamentos gratuitos durante 12 semanas.

A pesquisa configura-se como um projeto de auxílio regular da Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (Fapesp), coordenado pela professora Mariana Avila, do Departamento de Fisioterapia (DFisio) da UFSCar, e conta com a participação da fisioterapeuta Luiza Duarte Alvares e dos graduandos em Fisioterapia Airton Pereira de Souza Júnior (da UFSCar) e Rafael Poltronieri (da Unicep). O trabalho é realizado pelo Laboratório de Pesquisa em Recursos Terapêuticos do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia (PPGFt) da Universidade.

A fibromialgia é uma doença não-inflamatória que atinge cerca de 5% da população mundial. É mais comum em pessoas entre 30 e 40 anos de idade, e atinge, proporcionalmente, mais as mulheres, que representam mais de 90% dos casos. A pesquisadora explica que o diagnóstico é baseado somente em critérios clínicos, devido à ausência de exames complementares que identifiquem a doença. A principal característica da fibromialgia é o quadro de dor crônica, muitas vezes, incapacitante, e a ele se somam diversos outros sintomas, como depressão, ansiedade, distúrbios do sono, da marcha e de equilíbrio, fadiga generalizada, fraqueza muscular, entre outros. “Esses problemas podem alterar de forma significativa a independência dos sujeitos, que sofrem com a queda da qualidade de vida, da funcionalidade diária e de produtividade”, afirma a docente da UFSCar.

A pesquisadora explica que a educação em neurociência da dor, também chamada de educação terapêutica da dor, é uma abordagem educacional que foi desenvolvida para aliviar a dor e diminuir a incapacidade associada à dor lombar crônica. “Esses efeitos são obtidos pela redução da convicção do paciente de que a dor é um sinal preciso da extensão da lesão tecidual, e pelo aumento da convicção de que a dor é influenciada por crenças e pensamentos”, descreve ela. A professora afirma que essa abordagem educacional é uma intervenção barata, de fácil aplicação e com resultados positivos em situações de dor crônica. Além disso, vários estudos têm mostrado que outras formas de tratamento também são efetivas no combate à dor e na melhora da qualidade de vida das pessoas com fibromialgia, como a hidroterapia, prática de exercícios dentro da água. “No entanto, não há na literatura estudos que mostrem os efeitos da associação da hidroterapia e da educação terapêutica da dor sobre a fibromialgia”, destaca a docente, reforçando o caráter inédito da atual pesquisa.

O tratamento da doença é feito por meio de medicamentos, psicoterapia e fisioterapia. De acordo com Avila, se os resultados da pesquisa confirmarem a associação benéfica da educação terapêutica da dor à hidroterapia para tratar mulheres fibromiálgicas, essa abordagem diferenciada, e de baixo custo, pode ser facilmente implementada em centros de saúde e nas unidades de Atenção Básica à Saúde como forma adjuvante no tratamento da fibromialgia.

Para realizar o trabalho, o grupo está convidando mulheres, entre 18 e 70 anos de idade, que tenham diagnóstico médico de fibromialgia. As participantes não podem ter problemas cognitivos, diabetes e hipertensão não controladas, paralisias, parestesias (sensação anormal e desagradável sobre a pele, como queimação, dormência, coceira etc), osteoartrite avançada, doença infectocontagiosa que impeça o uso de piscina, ou fazer uso abusivo de álcool. As voluntárias não podem ter medo de piscina e nem alergia a produtos utilizados na manutenção da água.

As avaliações serão feitas na Unidade Saúde Escola (USE) da UFSCar e o tratamento acontecerá em uma academia de São Carlos. As mulheres serão divididas em dois grupos: um realizará apenas hidroterapia duas vezes por semana, durante 12 semanas, acompanhada por fisioterapeuta. O outro grupo realizará a hidroterapia e passará por sessões de educação terapêutica da dor. Todas também passarão por entrevistas em várias etapas ao longo das doze semanas de tratamento. As interessadas podem entrar em contato com os pesquisadores até o mês de julho de 2019 pelo WhasApp (12) 98193-8000 ou pelo e-mails luiza3005@hotmail.com e pesquisa.dor.ufscar@gmail.com.

Projeto de Pesquisa aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da UFSCar (CAAE: 65119617.6.0000.5504).

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